Paulette Nardal was one of the founders of the Negritude intellectual movement. Nardal was born on October 12, 1896 in Saint-Pierre, Martinique, to Paul Nardal, the first black engineer in Public Works on the island, and Louise (Achille) Nardal. Paulette was the eldest of seven sisters.

After her studies in Martinique, Paulette arrived in Paris (France) in 1920 and became the first Black student from Martinique at La Sorbonne University. As a student, Paulette Nardal regularly attended Le Bal Nègre, a dancing and jazz club where black people gathered and which allowed her to remain connected to both the Black Diaspora and Africa.  At the end of her studies Paulette Nardal presented a dissertation on Harriet Beecher Stowe, who wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin. This work introduced her to the intellectual struggle of black people in the United States.

Paulette was later joined later in Paris by sisters Jane and Andrée. Jane (or Jeanne) Nardal, was the fourth among the seven sisters.  She studied Literature at La Sorbonne University, was interested in Negro Spiritual songs and contributed to its spread in Martinique. Andrée was also interested in music and was a pianist.

In 1929, the three Nardal sisters opened a Paris salon called Le Salon de Clamart. This salon was also a gathering place where black intellectuals met, networked, and reflected on black peoples’ condition which was dominated at that time by colonialism in Africa and racial discrimination in the United States and the West Indies.

Jean-Price Mars, René Maran, Marian Anderson, and Marcus Garvey were among the many black intellectuals and artists who visited the salon. The visitors also included Aimé Césaire, Léopold Sédar Senghor, and Léon Gontran Damas, who are considered the founders of the Negritude movement.  Historians now however credit Le Salon de Clamart as creating the intellectual environment that produced the major ideas related to the concept of Negritude and the subsequent Negritude movement. The Nardal sisters, for example, used the salon to create the intellectual review journal La revue du monde noir (The review of the Black world). Although the review lasted only one year, Paulette became known for their articles which explored the condition of black women throughout the diaspora.

Paulette was crippled in 1941 at the beginning of World War II when the ship she was traveling on from Martinique to France was attacked by a German warship. During the war, she actively participated in the French resistance to the German occupation.  She also created another salon as well as the feminist intellectual review La femme dans la cité (The woman in the city).

In the post-World War II period Paulette Nadal was nominated in 1946 as a delegate to the United Nations where she worked in the Division of Non-Self Governing Territories. She returned to Martinique in 1948 and in the 1950s and 1960s, she supported Dr. Martin Luther King in the campaign for civil rights in the United States.  Paulette Nadal, who never married, died in Fort-de-France, Martinique on February 16, 1985. She was 88.







Tony Tokunbo Eteka Fernandez is an International Award Winner, Published Author & Poet, Broadcast Journalist, MC and Youth Empowerment Consultant . He is also The CEO of AFRICA4U and The Founder of Africans in The Diaspora People also see him as a Cultural and Social entrepreneur, which means he is skilled in working with many different communities, bringing people together in successful focused events. Tony has organised many cultural events …involving both BME and mainstream communities. He is skilled in hosting events that reinforce community cohesion and bringing different kinds of people together. He has organised events in The UK, The U.S.A, Holland, Germany, Romania, Malta and Nigeria and has visited over 22 European Countries. Tony has also organised The Black History Month Celebrations at The UK House of Parliament for over five years in a row He continues to promote the true life and success stories of Africans in Europe and Africans around the world and has organised several small scale literary and awards initiatives aimed at empowering young people. He has also spent time as an International broadcaster and was The Producer and Presenter for AFRICA4U International Radio Talk Show at Reading4u Radio Station for nearly three years. Tony has interviewed high profile Members of Parliament, Distinguished celebrities and some of Africas best musicians including Ivonne Chaka Chaka and Kanda Bongoman. He has also been a guest on BBC Radio on numerous occasions to discuss the community cohesion events he organises at UK House of Parliament and also to recite some of his published work in memory of Nelson Mandela, 50 Years Anniversary of The race relations act and major community issues. Tony has also a Guest on popular Radio stations in Nigeria and The States In the last few years he has been very passionate about Youth empowerment, community cohesion and cultural intelligence. Tony was born in South London and has lived in several parts of England and Nigeria . He started writing at the tender age of nine, a habit he expressed with creative enthusiasm. Tony writes Poetry, short stories and proverbs on personal development. He is currently working on his 4th book which will also be his first novel. He is also into Public Speaking at Special events and Social functions and is a Mentor for young people in the UK Community. He completed a Bachelor of Arts degree at The University of Lagos, Nigeria in English and World Literature. He later went on to attain a teaching qualification at The Frances King International Training Institute, South Kensington London, it was here he studied Teaching English as a Foreign Language. He also studied Web Design at The City University in London. He published his first book in June 1999 called “The Beauty in the Dark” (A Collection of Poetry which received critical acclamation in many circles around the world). .Tony’s aim in life is to inspire the young generation and to encourage the youth to make the very best of their dreams and aspirations,. He published a 2nd book in June 2009 called ” The Sound of Running Water” – A Family gift book of proverbs and quotations on Personal Development and Positive Thinking . In December 2009, he published his 3rd book called “One Moment of Peace”.- A collection of Poetry inspired by personal experiences and spiritual growth. Besides the fact that the Artist has won International online awards, he is mostly inspired by Life experience, love, music and cultural awareness. He was Resident Poet at the 5th London Poetry Festival in 2009 and has been a guest on BBC Radio on very many occassions including The famous Anne Diamond Show. He has also been a guest on a few SKY TV stations and several International Radio Stations around The World
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